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Panpsychism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Panpsychism is the view that mentality is fundamental and ubiquitous in the natural world. The view has a long and venerable history in philosophical traditions of both East and West, and has recently enjoyed a revival in analytic philosophy. See more ...

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Abduction (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: In the philosophical literature, the term “abduction” is used in two related but different senses. In both senses, the term refers to some form of explanatory reasoning. or off-topic, or implausible, or otherwise odd or inappropriate; see, for instance, Bach and Harnish 1979 (92f), Dascal 1979 (167), and Hobbs 2004. As in cases of See more ...

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Moral Dilemmas (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: So those who want to argue against dilemmas purely on conceptual grounds are better off focusing on the first of the two arguments above. –––, 1995, Practical Guilt: Moral Dilemmas, Emotions, and Social Norms, New York: Oxford University Press. See more ...

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The Frame Problem (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: The point here is not a logical one. The effect on fridgeons of switching Fodor's fridge on and off can concisely be represented without any difficulty (Shanahan 1997, 25). Rather, the point is metaphysical. The common sense law of inertia is only justified in the context of the right ontology, the right choice of objects and predicates. See more ...

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The Sale of Human Organs (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Second, it is not clear that monetary incentives make people act against their better interests or judgement. Indeed, this is a rather surprising view to take since people trade off monetary gains and losses against other factors on a daily basis; commerce and work require us to do this all the time. See more ...

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Supertasks (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Supertasks are often described by sequences that do not converge. J. F. Thomson (1954) introduced one such example now known as Thomson’s Lamp, which he thought illustrated a sense in which supertasks truly are paradoxical. Suppose we switch off a lamp. After 1 minute we switch it on. See more ...

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The Donation and Sale of Human Eggs and Sperm (Stanford

Offer Details: Things look rather different though if the choice is instead between a population of donor-conceived children using paid donors or a different and significantly smaller population, for then it would be necessary to ‘trade off’ a higher average quality of life against both (a) the fact that there are fewer lives overall and (b) any harm done See more ...

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Paternalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Paternalism is the interference of a state or an individual with another person, against their will, and defended or motivated by a claim that the person interfered with will be better off or protected from harm. See more ...

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Cellular Automata (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Cellular automata (henceforth: CA) are discrete, abstract computational systems that have proved useful both as general models of complexity and as more specific representations of non-linear dynamics in a variety of scientific fields. Firstly, CA are (typically) spatially and temporally discrete: they are composed of a finite or denumerable set of homogenous, simple units, the atoms or cells. See more ...

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Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender (Stanford

Offer Details: This is said to be evident (for instance) in job interviews. Men are treated as gender-neutral persons and not asked whether they are planning to take time off to have a family. By contrast, that women face such queries illustrates that they are associated more closely than men with bodily features to do with procreation (Prokhovnik 1999, 126). See more ...

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Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Critics sometimes charge that the average utility could also be increased by killing the worst off, but this claim is not at all clear, because such killing would put everyone in danger (since, after the worst off are killed, another group becomes the worst off, and then they might be killed next). See more ...

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Locke On Freedom (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: When it is proposed to him that he give off walking, he has no option but to will one way or the other with respect to whether to give off walking: if he stops walking, this will be because he willed that his walking cease; and if he continues to walk, this will be because he willed that his walking continue. See more ...

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Feminist Perspectives on Objectification (Stanford

Offer Details: He believes that we are better off arguing that, in Nussbaum’s positive objectification cases, there is no objectification to begin with. This is better than “engaging in mental gymnastics to try to show that there is objectification but that it is okay or good” (Halwani 2010, 197). See more ...

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Feminist Perspectives on Globalization (Stanford

Offer Details: In its broadest sense, globalization refers to the economic, social, cultural, and political processes of integration that result from the expansion of transnational economic production, migration, communications, and technologies. Global care chains typically begin when relatively well-off northern or Western women enter the paid labor See more ...

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Absolute and Relational Theories of Space and Motion

Offer Details: The recently finished Gravity Probe B mission was designed to measure the gravitomagnetic induction effect due to the Earth's rotation.) Its specific form must fall off with distance much more slowly than 1/r 2, if it is to be empirically similar to Newtonian physics; but it will certainly predict experimentally testable novel behaviors. A See more ...

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Reid on Memory and Personal Identity (Stanford

Offer Details: The mind is directed towards and reads off from these representations, information about extra-mental items. By contrast, Reid holds that the direct objects of memory and perception are extra-mental. In the case of perception, the mind is directed to present material objects and properties; in the case of memory, the mind is directed towards See more ...

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Modesty and Humility (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Picture someone who constantly boasts about their accomplishments, thinks they know it all, and, even when they’re not talking, exudes an off-putting smug self-satisfaction. Such a person seems to have an ethical shortcoming; what they’re missing, you might think to yourself, is a bit of modesty or humility. See more ...

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Libertarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Libertarianism is a family of views in political philosophy. Libertarians strongly value individual freedom and see this as justifying strong protections for individual freedom. Thus, libertarians insist that justice poses stringent limits to coercion. and it expresses the refusal to treat people as mere things to use or trade off against See more ...

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The Definition of Lying and Deception (Stanford

Offer Details: The Definition of Lying and Deception. First published Thu Feb 21, 2008; substantive revision Fri Dec 25, 2015. Questions central to the philosophical discussion of lying to others and other-deception (interpersonal deceiving) may be divided into two kinds. Questions of the first kind are definitional or conceptual. See more ...

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Justice and Access to Health Care (Stanford Encyclopedia

Offer Details: There should be universal access to a decent minimum of health care, for everyone is better off with such access and no one is worse off. There should not, however, be equal access to all health care, assuming the Ex Ante Pareto Principle, for the overall package of health care it is prudent to buy will differ above the decent minimum. See more ...

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Plato’s Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford

Offer Details: The strong themselves, on this view, are better off disregarding justice and serving their own interests directly. Socrates sees in this “immoralist” challenge the explicit question of whether one should live a just or unjust life (344d–e), and he tries repeatedly to repel Thrasymachus’ onslaught. A., 1968, The Republic of Plato See more ...

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Human Enhancement (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: For example, general cognitive enhancement interventions are likely to be approved for use only in patients with neurological diseases. However, to the extent that they are in high demand by individuals suffering the effects of normal aging, the risk of unapproved or “off-label” uses will be high (Whitehouse, et. al, 1997). See more ...

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Alienation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: In addition to that problematic bifurcation of the self, such accounts might seem to cut us off from much that is valuable in our lives. If these impersonal kinds of moral consideration are to dominate our practical reasoning, then it seems likely that an individual’s particular attachments, loyalties, and commitments, will have, at best, a See more ...

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The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics (Stanford

Offer Details: 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence. The term beneficence connotes acts or personal qualities of mercy, kindness, generosity, and charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all norms, dispositions, and actions with See more ...

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Disability: Health, Well-Being, and Personal Relationships

Offer Details: After exploring the relevance of disability to well-being, health, and personal relationships, this Entry will conclude by examining common features of the philosophical treatment of disability in the three domains. regardless of whether that pain or injury leaves her worse off overall. She is harmed by painful life-saving surgery, although See more ...

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Descartes’ Theory of Ideas (Stanford Encyclopedia of

Offer Details: Ideas are among the most important items in Descartes’ philosophy. They serve to unify his ontology and epistemology. As he says in a letter to Guillaume Gibieuf (1583–1650), dated 19 January 1642, “I am certain that I can have no knowledge of what is outside me except by means of the ideas I have within me.” [] Descartes never published anything that specifically worked out a theory See more ...

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Equality of Opportunity (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: The presumption is overturned when people have the opportunity to be as well off as others but make choices or behave in ways that (a) render them worse off than others and (b) make it the case that compensating them or ameliorating their condition to restore equality of condition between them and others is morally inappropriate or at least not See more ...

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Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology (Stanford

Offer Details: This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level of organization. See more ...

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The Legal Concept of Evidence (Stanford Encyclopedia of

Offer Details: The legal concept of evidence is neither static nor universal. Medieval understandings of evidence in the age of trial by ordeal would be quite alien to modern sensibilities (Ho 2003–2004) and there is no approach to evidence and proof that is shared by all legal systems of the world today. See more ...

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Plato’s Cratylus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Otherwise put, the name ‘man’, or its equivalent in any other language, is a suitable and well-made name in so far as it discharges its function of separating off vocally what it is to be a man from what it is to be a dog, a drainpipe, or anything else. In doing this, the name also ‘instructs’. See more ...

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Equality of Educational Opportunity (Stanford Encyclopedia

Offer Details: One can also ask whether equal educational opportunity requires affirmative action, and what it may require for students with disabilities and special educational needs. One can accept equality of educational opportunity with respect to some goods and adequacy of educational opportunity with respect to others (Callan 2016). See more ...

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The Nonidentity Problem (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Still other philosophers have suggested principles that require agents to create additional wellbeing, including, when necessary, by bringing a better off person into existence in place of a nonidentical less well off person, but limit that obligation to the case where agents can substitute in the better off person for the less well off person See more ...

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Liberal Feminism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Such conservatives worry about the radical implications of liberal feminism, its willingness to put women's autonomy ahead of institutions and norms on which many people rely for their well-being. Ann Cudd suggests that the expansion of opportunity and equality promised by liberal feminism “makes us all better off” (Cudd 2006, 237). See more ...

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Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia

Offer Details: Sections 2, 3 and 4 then go on to explore critically the three main branches of inquiry at the intersection of morality and evolutionary biology: Descriptive Evolutionary Ethics, Prescriptive Evolutionary Ethics, and Evolutionary Metaethics. 1. Overview: Basic Issues, Questions, and Distinctions instead of having to shove the man off the See more ...

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Aristotle’s Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: We study ethics in order to improve our lives, and therefore its principal concern is the nature of human well-being. and are ready to break off their association abruptly. Aristotle does not mean to suggest that unequal relations based on the mutual recognition of good character are defective in these same ways. Rather, when he says that See more ...

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Disability and Health Care Rationing (Stanford

Offer Details: Yet, since it is difficult to clearly separate the general ethical issues from those raised by the focus on disability, we begin in Section 1 by surveying, first, general ethical concerns in health care rationing, and then the specific issues raised by CEA and quality of life as a metric of the “benefit” that health care resources provide. See more ...

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The Meaning of Life (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: This discussion starts off with works that address the latter, abstract question regarding the sense of talk of “life's meaning,” i.e., that aim to clarify what we are asking when we pose the question of what, if anything, makes life meaningful. A., 2011, The Meaning of Life: A Modern Secular Answer to the Age-Old Fundamental Question See more ...

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Feminist Perspectives on Reproduction and the Family

Offer Details: But it is difficult to enforce, and work culture makes it hard for those entitled to exercise their right. Men, in particular are unlikely to take time off following the birth of a child. It is therefore worthwhile to look into new technologies that make possible new ways of becoming (or failing to become) a parent. See more ...

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Niccolò Machiavelli (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Why Machiavelli? That question might naturally and legitimately occur to anyone encountering an entry about him in an encyclopedia of philosophy. Certainly, Machiavelli contributed to a large number of important discourses in Western thought—political theory most notably, but also history and See more ...

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Probabilistic Causation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: The program described in this section did much to illuminate the relationship between causation and probability. In particular, it helped us to better understand the way in which causal structure can give rise to probabilistic relations of screening off. See more ...

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Freedom of Speech (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: It becomes a volatile issue when it is highly valued because only then do the limitations placed upon it become controversial. The first thing to note in any sensible discussion of freedom of speech is that it will have to be limited. See more ...

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Respect (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Some people find that finally being able to respect themselves is what matters most about getting off welfare, kicking a disgusting habit, or defending something they value; others, sadly, discover that life is no longer worth living if self-respect is irretrievably lost. See more ...

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Weakness of Will (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: In the rest of his paper Davidson sets out to vindicate that very possibility. The phrase “all things considered” is not, as it might seem, merely a minor difference in wording that allows weakness of will to get off on a technicality. See more ...

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Parmenides (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: But an apparently insurmountable difficulty for this response comes in the suggestive verses of fr. 4: “but behold things that, while absent, are steadfastly present to thought:/ for you will not cut off What Is from holding fast to What Is,/ neither dispersing everywhere every way in a world-order (kata kosmon)/ nor drawing together.” See more ...

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Immanuel Kant (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields. See more ...

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Social Networking and Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of

Offer Details: When philosophers speak today, however, of ‘Social Networking and Ethics’, they usually refer more narrowly to the ethical impact of an evolving and loosely defined group of information technologies, most based on or inspired by the ‘Web 2.0’ software standards that emerged in the first decade of the 21 st century. See more ...

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Voluntary Euthanasia (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: 1. Introduction. When a person performs an act of euthanasia, she brings about the death of another person because she believes the latter’s present existence is so bad that he would be better off dead, or believes that unless she intervenes and ends his life, his life will very soon become so bad that he would be better off dead. See more ...

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The Experience and Perception of Time (Stanford

Offer Details: But there seems no reason to deny that, just because perception of precedence may involve short-term memory, it does not thereby count as genuine perception. There is a further disanalogy between perception of colour and perception of time order. What is perceived in the case of colour is something that has a definite spatio-temporal location. See more ...

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Egalitarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: If we can effect a change, perhaps by transferring resources, that will make the worse off person better off and make the better off person worse off, provided the change does not bring it about that the formerly better off person is now worse off, the change will bring the people closer to being equally well off. See more ...

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Virtue Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Offer Details: Contemporary conceptions of right and wrong action, built as they are around a notion of moral duty that presupposes a framework of divine (or moral) law or around a conception of obligation that is defined in contrast to self-interest, carry baggage the virtue ethicist is better off without. See more ...

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